Please forward this error screen to 193. The health effects surrounding the human orgasm are diverse. Orgasm in non-human animals has been studied significantly less than orgasm in humans, but research on the subject is ongoing. In a clinical context, orgasm is usually defined strictly by the muscular contractions involved during sexual activity, along with the characteristic the health care handbook 2nd edition pdf download of change in heart rate, blood pressure, and often respiration rate and depth.
However, definitions of orgasm vary and there is sentiment that consensus on how to consistently classify it is absent. The question centers around the clinical definition of orgasm, but this way of viewing orgasm is merely physiological, while there are also psychological, endocrinological, and neurological definitions of orgasm. In these and similar cases, the sensations experienced are subjective and do not necessarily involve the involuntary contractions characteristic of orgasm. For example, modern findings support distinction between ejaculation and male orgasm. For this reason, there are views on both sides as to whether these can be accurately defined as orgasms. Scientific literature focuses on the psychology of female orgasm significantly more than it does on the psychology of male orgasm, which “appears to reflect the assumption that female orgasm is psychologically more complex than male orgasm,” but “the limited empirical evidence available suggests that male and female orgasm may bear more similarities than differences.
They reported that, unlike females, “for the man the resolution phase includes a superimposed refractory period” and added that “many males below the age of 30, but relatively few thereafter, have the ability to ejaculate frequently and are subject to only very short refractory periods during the resolution phase”. Masters and Johnson equated male orgasm and ejaculation and maintained the necessity for a refractory period between orgasms. There has been little scientific study of multiple orgasm in men. Kahn’s assertion that some men are capable of achieving them is supported by men who have reported having multiple, consecutive orgasms, particularly without ejaculation. Males who experience dry orgasms can often produce multiple orgasms, as the refractory period is reduced.
Anecdotal reports on cabergoline suggest it may be able to eliminate the refractory period altogether, allowing men to experience multiple ejaculatory orgasms in rapid succession. It has not been approved for treating sexual dysfunction. It is believed that the amount by which oxytocin is increased may affect the length of each refractory period. During the study, six fully ejaculatory orgasms were experienced in 36 minutes, with no apparent refractory period. Orgasms vary in intensity, and women vary in the frequency of their orgasms and the amount of stimulation necessary to trigger an orgasm. One misconception, particularly in older research publications, is that the vagina is completely insensitive. Hite and Chalker state that the tip of the clitoris and the inner lips, which are also very sensitive, are not receiving direct stimulation during penetrative intercourse.
For some women, the clitoris is very sensitive after climax, making additional stimulation initially painful. Masters and Johnson argued that all women are potentially multiply orgasmic, but that multiply orgasmic men are rare, and stated that “the female is capable of rapid return to orgasm immediately following an orgasmic experience, if restimulated before tensions have dropped below plateau phase response levels”. After the initial orgasm, subsequent orgasms for women may be stronger or more pleasurable as the stimulation accumulates. In 1905, Freud stated that clitoral orgasms are purely an adolescent phenomenon and that upon reaching puberty, the proper response of mature women is a change-over to vaginal orgasms, meaning orgasms without any clitoral stimulation. While Freud provided no evidence for this basic assumption, the consequences of this theory were considerable. Many women felt inadequate when they could not achieve orgasm via vaginal intercourse alone, involving little or no clitoral stimulation, as Freud’s theory made penile-vaginal intercourse the central component to women’s sexual satisfaction.