This article is about the general concept of art. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism george dickie institutional theory of art pdf art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art.
Works of art can tell stories or simply express an aesthetic truth or feeling. Panorama of a section of A Thousand Li of Mountains and Rivers, a 12th-century painting by Song dynasty artist Wang Ximeng. Latin meaning, which roughly translates to “skill” or “craft,” as associated with words such as “artisan. Artistic works may serve practical functions, in addition to their decorative value. Few modern scholars have been more divided than Plato and Aristotle on the question concerning the importance of art, with Aristotle strongly supporting art in general and Plato generally being opposed to its relative importance. Homer’s great poetic art, and laughter as well. Greek world as the Bible does today in the modern Christian world: as divinely inspired literary art that can provide moral guidance, if only it can be properly interpreted.
For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, and poetry with language. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation—through narrative or character, through change or no change, and through drama or no drama. Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind’s advantages over animals. Art is something that stimulates an individual’s thoughts, emotions, beliefs, or ideas through the senses. Works of art can be explicitly made for this purpose or interpreted on the basis of images or objects. Often, if the skill is being used in a common or practical way, people will consider it a craft instead of art.
Some art followers have argued that the difference between fine art and applied art has more to do with value judgments made about the art than any clear definitional difference. However, even fine art often has goals beyond pure creativity and self-expression. The purpose may also be seemingly nonexistent. Larry Shiner has described fine art as “not an essence or a fate but something we have made. Art as we have generally understood it is a European invention barely two hundred years old. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The oldest art objects in the world—a series of tiny, drilled snail shells about 75,000 years old—were discovered in a South African cave.
Containers that may have been used to hold paints have been found dating as far back as 100,000 years. 430,000 and 540,000 years ago were discovered in 2014. Each of these centers of early civilization developed a unique and characteristic style in its art. Because of the size and duration of these civilizations, more of their art works have survived and more of their influence has been transmitted to other cultures and later times. Some also have provided the first records of how artists worked.
For example, this period of Greek art saw a veneration of the human physical form and the development of equivalent skills to show musculature, poise, beauty, and anatomically correct proportions. Nevertheless, a classical realist tradition persisted in small Byzantine works, and realism steadily grew in the art of Catholic Europe. Tunisia, also called the Mosque of Uqba, is one of the finest, most significant and best preserved artistic and architectural examples of early great mosques. Dated in its present state from the 9th century, it is the ancestor and model of all the mosques in the western Islamic lands. Further east, religion dominated artistic styles and forms too. India and Tibet saw emphasis on painted sculptures and dance, while religious painting borrowed many conventions from sculpture and tended to bright contrasting colors with emphasis on outlines. Chinese styles vary greatly from era to era and each one is traditionally named after the ruling dynasty.
Japan names its styles after imperial dynasties too, and also saw much interplay between the styles of calligraphy and painting. Japan after the 17th century. The history of twentieth-century art is a narrative of endless possibilities and the search for new standards, each being torn down in succession by the next. 20th century to a realization of its unattainability. 1970, “It is now taken for granted that nothing which concerns art can be taken for granted any more: neither art itself, nor art in relationship to the whole, nor even the right of art to exist.