The purpose of this review paper is to present the techniques, advances, problems and likely advanced modelling techniques in structural design pdf developments in numerical modelling for rock mechanics. Such modelling is essential for studying the fundamental processes occurring in rocks and for rock engineering design. The review begins by explaining the special nature of rock masses and the consequential difficulties when attempting to model their inherent characteristics of discontinuousness, anisotropy, inhomogeneity and inelasticity. The rock engineering design backdrop to the review is also presented.
The different types of numerical models are outlined in Section 2, together with a discussion on how to obtain the necessary parameters for the models. There is also discussion on the value that is obtained from the modelling, especially the enhanced understanding of those mechanisms initiated by engineering perturbations. In Section 3, the largest section, states-of-the-art and advances associated with the main methods are presented in detail. In many cases, for the model to adequately represent the rock reality, it is necessary to incorporate couplings between the thermal, hydraulic and mechanical processes. The physical processes and the equations characterizing the coupled behaviour are included in Section 4, with an illustrative example and discussion on the likely future development of coupled models. Finally, in Section 5, the advances and outstanding issues in the subject are listed and in Section 6 there are specific recommendations concerning quality control, enhancing confidence in the models, and the potential future developments.
Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. This is the second of a series of Journal Review Articles commissioned by the Editor. The series consists of articles reviewing significant or topical subjects, or subjects requiring expert explanation. 427, and is longer than usual papers in order to do justice to the subject. Design clashes that occur within a federated BIM are analysed. Generalized Gamma distribution models are produced. Significant challenges for error mitigation in a BIM are reported upon.